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Green Hills with Blue Sky

ABA Studies

ABA Midwest Education, Ltd.
Janice M. Pellecchia, M.A., Psychology, BCBA
www.abamidwestltd.com- 312-375-1000

Summary of Research Studies Related to Applied Behavior Analysis

Study: Lovaas, O. I. (1987)

Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9 http://faculty.caldwell.edu/kreeve/Lovaas%201987.pdf

Result: 47 percent of young children receiving 40 hours per week of ABA therapy for 2 years achieved IQ's in the normal range and normal school placement.

Experimental Group:

Size: 19

Treatment: 40 hours per week, 2 years

Autism diagnosis: 19 out of 19

Age at diagnosis: 32.0 months (avg)

Age at start of treatment: 34.6 months (avg)

PMA at start of treatment: 18.8 months (avg)

IQ at start of treatment: 54.3 (avg)

IQ at end of treatment: 83.3 (avg)

Change in IQ: +29.0 (avg)

EP at end of treatment: 2.37 (avg)

Recovered: 9 out of 19 (average final IQ of 107)

Aphasic: 8 out of 19 (average final IQ of 70)

Autistic/Retarded: 2 out of 19 (average final IQ of 30)


Control Group 1:

Size: 19

Treatment: 10 hours per week, 2 years

Autism diagnosis: 19 out of 19

Age at diagnosis: 35.3 months (avg)

Age at start of treatment: 40.9 months (avg)

PMA at start of treatment: 17.1 months (avg)

IQ at start of treatment: 41.8 (avg)

IQ at end of treatment: 52.2 (avg)

Change in IQ: +10.4 (avg)

EP at end of treatment: 1.42 (avg)

Recovered: 0 out of 19

Aphasic: 8 out of 19 (average final IQ of 74)

Autistic/Retarded: 11 out of 19 (average final IQ of 36)


Control Group 2:

Size: 21

Treatment: non-ABA

Autism diagnosis: 21 out of 21

IQ at end of treatment: 57.5 (avg)

EP at end of treatment: 1.57 (avg)

Recovered: 1 out of 21 (final IQ of 99)

Aphasic: 10 out of 21 (average final IQ of 67)

Autistic/Retarded: 10 out of 21 (average final IQ of 44)

PMA --> prorated mental age

EP --> educational placement (3 - normal class, 2 - language delayed, 1 - autistic/retarded)




Study: Howard, Jane S., Sparkman, Coleen R., Cohen, Howard G., Green, Gina, & Stanislaw, Harold (2005)

A Comparison of Intensive Behavior Analytic and Eclectic Treatments for Young Children with Autism Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26 (4), 359-383

http://www.ctfeat.org/articles/ABAvEclectic.pdf

Result: A comparison of three different treatments (ABA, autism special ed, and general special ed) over a period of 14 months showed that ABA treatment outperformed the other two treatments.


Intensive Behavior Analytic (IBT) Group:

Size: 29

Treatment: 25-40 hours per week of ABA therapy

14.21 months of treatment (avg) adult to child ratio = 1:1

Number of boys: 25

Number of girls: 4

Autism diagnosis: 24 out of 29

PDD-NOS diagnosis: 5 out of 29

Age at start of treatment: 30.86 months (avg)

Cognitive score (IQ) at start: 58.54 (avg)

Cognitive score (IQ) at end: 89.88 (avg)

Change in IQ: +31.34 (avg)


Autism Programming (AP) Group:

Size: 16

Treatment: 25-30 hours per week of eclectic therapy

13.25 months of treatment (avg)

adult to child ratio = 1:2

Number of boys: 13

Number of girls: 3

Autism diagnosis: 12 out of 16

PDD-NOS diagnosis: 4 out of 16

Age at start of treatment: 37.44 months (avg)

Cognitive score (IQ) at start: 53.69 (avg)

Cognitive score (IQ) at end: 62.13 (avg)

Change in IQ: +8.44 (avg)


Generic Programming (GP) Group:

Size: 16

Treatment: 15 hours per week of special education

14.75 months of treatment (avg)

adult to child ratio = 1:6

Number of boys: 16

Number of girls: 0

Autism diagnosis: 9 out of 16

PDD-NOS diagnosis: 7 out of 16

Age at start of treatment: 34.56 months (avg)

Cognitive score (IQ) at start: 59.88 (avg)

Cognitive score (IQ) at end: 68.81 (avg)

Change in IQ: +8.93 (avg)




Study: Sallows, Glen O. & Graupner, Tamlynn D. (2005)

Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Children with Autism: Four-Year Outcome and Predictors American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110 (6), 417-438

http://www.ctfeat.org/articles/AmericanJournalMentalRetardatio nNov2005.pdf

Result: A comparison of a clinic-directed ABA program consisting of 37 hours per week of ABA for 35 months versus a parent-directed ABA program consisting of 31 hours per week of ABA for 37 months showed that the parent-directed ABA program was just as good as the clinic- directed ABA program.

Clinic-directed Group:

Size: 13

Treatment:

38.60 hours per week - 1st year (avg)

36.55 hours per week - 2nd year (avg)

35.00 months of treatment (avg)

Number of boys:

11 Number of girls: 2

Autism diagnosis: 13 out of 13

Number of nonverbal kids: 8 out of 13

Age at pre-test: 33.23 months (avg)

Age at post-test: 83.23 months (avg)

IQ at start of treatment: 50.85 (avg)

IQ at end of treatment: 73.08 (avg)

Change in IQ: +22.23 (avg)


Parent-directed Group:

Size: 10

Treatment:

31.67 hours per week - 1st year (avg)

30.88 hours per week - 2nd year (avg)

37.10 months of treatment (avg)

Number of boys: 8

Number of girls: 2

Autism diagnosis: 10 out of 10

Number of nonverbal kids: 2 out of 10

Age at pre-test: 34.20 months (avg)

Age at post-test: 82.50 months (avg)

IQ at start of treatment: 52.10 (avg)

IQ at end of treatment: 79.60 (avg)

Change in IQ: +27.50 (avg)


For both groups combined:

Rapid learners:

Size: 11

IQ at start: 55.27 (avg)

IQ at end: 103.73 (avg)

Change in IQ: +48.46 (avg)

Moderate learners:

Size: 12

IQ at start: 47.83 (avg)

IQ at end: 50.42 (avg)

Change in IQ: +2.59 (avg)




Study: Cohen, Howard, Amerine-Dickens, Mila, & Smith, Tristram (2006)

Early Intensive Behavioral Treatment: Replication of the UCLA Model in a Community Setting Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27 (2), 145- 155

http://www.pacificautismcenter.com/ADA-Info/Cohen2006.pdf

Result: 57 percent of young autistic children receiving 37.5 hours per week of ABA therapy for 3 years acheived IQ's in the normal range but only 29 percent were in a regular classroom with no shadow. 33 percent of young autistic children receiving special education achieved IQ's in the normal range but none of them were in a regular classroom with no shadow.

EIBT (Early Intensive Behavioral Treatment) Group:

Size: 21

Treatment: 35-40 hours per week, 3 years

Number of boys: 18

Number of girls: 3

Autism diagnosis: 20 out of 21

PDD-NOS diagnosis: 1 out of 21

Age at diagnosis: 30.2 months (avg)

IQ at start of treatment: 62 (avg)

IQ at end of treatment: 87 (avg)

Change in IQ: +25 (avg)

Normal range:

IQ: 12 out of 21

Receptive Language: 8 out of 21

Expressive Language: 9 out of 21

VABS Composite: 8 out of 21

School Placement: 6 out of 21


Comparison Group:

Size: 21

Treatment: public school placement, 3 years

Number of boys: 17

Number of girls: 4

Autism diagnosis: 15 out of 21

PDD-NOS diagnosis: 6 out of 21

Age at diagnosis: 33.2 months (avg)

IQ at start of treatment: 59 (avg)

IQ at end of treatment: 73 (avg)

Change in IQ: +14 (avg)

Normal range:

IQ: 7 out of 21

Receptive Language: 4 out of 21

Expressive Language: 6 out of 21

VABS Composite: 3 out of 21

School Placement: 0 out of 21

VABS --> Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales